Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini nació el 29 de julio de 1883 en Dovia di Predappio en Italia. Proveniente de una familia humilde, su padre Alessandro Mussolini era un herrero y gran defensor de las ideas socialistas, su madre, Rosa Maltoni, era maestra de escuela que parió la mayoría la mayoría de los gastos de la familia. Mussolini tenía sus primeras opiniones en política formada por la influencia de su padre y las lecturas de autores como Friedrich Nietzsche y el francés Georges Sorel (“sindicalismo revolucionario”). Siguió estudios de calificar como maestro de primaria, así como la madre, a pesar de los incidentes por mal comportamiento que le llevó a ser expulsado de la escuela.

Benito Mussolini

Benito Mussolini, el líder del fascismo, movimiento de alto impacto en Italia. | Foto: reproducción


Al migrar a Suiza en el año 1902 con el fin de seguir en el ejército, Mussolini tenía un breve trabajo como albañil en Ginebra y no tuvo éxito en la búsqueda de un trabajo permanente en el país. En ese tiempo, estudió filósofos como Friedrich Nietzsche, el sindicalista Georges Sorel y el sociólogo Vilfredo Pareto y se unió al movimiento del socialista marxista. Él llegó a ser activo en el movimiento socialista italiano en Suiza, donde trabajó para el periódico L ‘ Avvenire del Lavoratore. En el año 1903, Mussolini fue arrestado por una violenta huelga general de apoyo, finalmente fue deportado a Italia y se convirtió en voluntario el servicio militar italiano, en sólo dos años antes de regresar a la enseñanza.


Carrera militar y política


En 1911 Mussolini fue arrestado otra vez para participar en una manifestación contra la guerra Italo-turca en Libia donde denunció la estrategia de Italia para capturar la capital de Trípoli, Libia. Estrategia así definida por él como “guerra imperialista”. Esta denuncia le valió cinco meses más en prisión. La carrera militar de Mussolini tuvo fin en el año 1917 debido a lesiones causadas por una explosión accidental de un proyectil de mortero en su alojamiento. En esta ocasión fue trasladado al hospital con aproximadamente de 40 piezas de metal en el cuerpo. Después de recibir tu correo de Mussolini alta reanudó el editor en jefe de su periódico Il Popolo d ‘ Italia. Casó en el año de 1915 con Rachele Guidi con quien tuvo una hija, Edda.


Mussolini y el fascismo


Mussolini fundó una organización llamada Fasci Italiani di lucha en el año 1919 que más adelante llevaría al partido fascista. El partido contó con el apoyo de gran parte de la población y de militares descontentos que aumentaron el tamaño de la fiesta. Fue elegido jefe del partido después de un período que alcanzó gran popularidad en medio de la agitación política y social.


Mussolini fue nombrado jefe de gobierno con la toma del poder por los fascistas en el año 1922 con la marcha sobre Roma y fue el partido único aceptado en Italia entre 1928 y 1943. Sin embargo el partido fascista fue disuelta con el arresto de Mussolini en julio de 1943 y con la caída del régimen fascista.


Muerte de Mussolini


Mussolini fue asesinado por los partidarios de la resistencia italiana en 28 abril 1945 día. Su compañera Clara Petacci permanecía a morir a tu lado mientras tenía una opción de escape. Sus cuerpos, que fueron expuestos en la Piazza Loreto de Milán, colgando de sus pies durante varios días, se entierran en una tumba de Mussolini en Italia.


Fueron palabras del dictador: “disparar aquí (dijo señalando el pecho). No destruir mi perfil “.


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