Ferdinand Magellan

Foto: reproducción


Magallanes fue uno de los creadores del primer viaje y navegación que daría vuelta al mundo en el siglo de mid-16th, pero fue incapaz de llegar a su destino. Como se afirma en su biografía, no sobrevivió el viaje que fue financiado por el entonces rey de España, con el objetivo de encontrar nuevas rutas de comercio de especias.


El período durante los siglos 12 y 16 era fuertemente marcado por numerosas expediciones marítimas por exploradores como Marco Polo, Bartolomeu Dias, Pedro Álvares Cabral, que en su viaje a la India finalmente descubriría Brasil en 1500, Vasco da Gama, Christopher Columbus, Cabot y Ferdinand Magellan que recorrieron el camino más grande entre todos los demás. El objetivo de estas explotaciones fue encontrar nuevas rutas comerciales y buscan nuevas especias y piedras preciosas en territorios desconocidos hasta entonces.


En aquel momento los instrumentos de navegación no eran muy precisos, lo que hizo el viaje, y la falta de información era también un problema. Muchos exploradores sentían que África fue de alguna manera relacionado con Asia y creían en la existencia de otro continente justo debajo del océano Índico. Sin embargo, cada nuevo envío, fueron el mayor conocimiento de la navegación e inventó nuevos instrumentos como el astrolabio, brújula, scripts de portulanos y descripciones de los viajes- y que garantiza una ruta cuadrantes más precisa y segura.


El mundo de la Fernão Magalhães

Mapa de la expedición

Itinerario de la expedición | Foto: reproducción


La expedición de Ferdinand Magellan que todo el mundo zarpó de Servilha el 10 de agosto de 1519 y consistió de cinco naves: Trinidad, Santiago, Victoria, Concepción y San Antonio, para embarcarse todo sobre de 240 hombres. Su objetivo principal era encontrar una nueva ruta comercial hacia las Indias que no fue hecha por el contorno del continente africano ya era conocida.


Haciendo cálculos con la ayuda de lo hermanos Fabian, dos cartógrafos portugueses, Magallanes creen hay un pasaje al sur del continente americano, que daría al océano Pacífico. La Junta también fue el italiano Antonio Pigafetta, responsable de muchas de las descripciones de la expedición y los informes de lo ocurrido durante el viaje como las supuestas apariciones de tres santos: Santa Clara, San Nicolás y San Telmo durante una fuerte tormenta que acometia vasos. Sin embargo, las apariciones eran un fenómeno atmosférico llamado fuego de Elmo, que provoca las tormentas a un halo de luz eléctrica en los mástiles de los barcos debido a la energía acumulada en las nubes.


En noviembre de 1520 la expedición logró por fin cruzar el estrecho sur del continente americano hacia el Océano Pacífico, ahora conocido como el estrecho de Magallanes. Solo en marzo del año siguiente capaz de alcanzar el archipiélago de Saint-Lazare, el actual territorio de las Filipinas y el 27 de abril del mismo año la expedición perdió su creador cuando Ferdinand Magellan murió, por disparos de una lanza envenenada durante una confrontación con los isleños.


El regreso


Debido a los peligros del largo recorrido prácticamente toda la tripulación se perdió y por completar su destino en mayo de 1522, aterrizaje en Servilha, sólo la Victoria quedaba por contar la historia, después de enfrentarse a los problemas y tienen que deshacerse de parte de las fuentes para que el buque podía moverse, con el sorprendente número de 18 hombres de los 240 que era en el principio de la expedición. Así el caravela completó el primer viaje alrededor del mundo, descubrir una nueva ruta comercial hacia las Indias y estableció la teoría que la tierra era redonda.


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