Giuseppe Garibaldi, italiano nacido en Nizza, actual Niza, en 04 de julio de 1807 fue un guerrillero y uno de los nombres más grandes en Italia. Conocido como el “héroe de dos mundos”, por haber participado en momentos importantes de la historia de Europa y América del sur, fue uno de los nombres más importantes en el episodio de la unificación italiana, teniendo como compañeros en esta batalla el Conde Cavour y Giuseppe Mazzini.

Giuseppe Garibaldi

Imagen: reproducción


Cuando él nació, Niza perteneció al Departamento de francés, que le llevó a ser registrado como un ciudadano de Francia, con el nombre de Joseph Marie Garibaldi. Hijo de Domenico Garibaldi, que era dueño de una tartana, Santa Raparata y Rosa Raimondi, fue la segunda de una cadena de seis niños. Su hermano mayor, llamado deAngelo, llegó a ser cónsul en los Estados Unidos, ha sido capitán en la marina de guerra, Felice era representante de una compañía de envío; Elisabetta y María Teresa murieron cuando todavía eran niños, el primero fue víctima de un incendio en un hogar de ancianos donde estaba internada y el segundo debido a una enfermedad.


No hay muchos informes de su niñez, pero se sabe que él no era muy adepto de los estudios. Cuando sus padres trataron de darle algún tipo de educación, dijo que prefería la vida de diversión. Diez años de su vida pasó a bordo de naves, donde la licencia del capitán. Pero sus deseos se aventura más allá del mar, quería aún más adrenalina.


En 1833, mientras al mando de una goleta que transportaba un cargamento de naranjas, en Taganrog, en Rusia, conoció a Giovanni Battista Cuneo, que se puso rápidamente en contacto con la sociedad secreta joven Italia, pretende librar el país del dominio extranjero . En noviembre de ese mismo año conoció a Giuseppe Mazzini, y juntos comprometió a dedicar su vida para liberar a la patria desde el extranjero.


En 1833, por participar en una fallida insurrección de Génova, el genovés tribunal lo condenó a muerte. Inmediatamente huyó a Marsella y luego en el año 1835, huyó a Túnez, a partir de entonces a Río de Janeiro. En Río de Janeiro tierras conoció a Luigi Rossetti y Bento Gonçalves, donde decidió unirse a la revolución Farroupilha.


01 de septiembre de 1838, Garibaldi fue nombrado a teniente de capitán, Marina de guerra comandante ragamuffin. En el viaje al sur fue capturado por el policía Marina uruguaya ser arrestado y torturado, pero logró escapar y llegar a Rio Grande do Sul. Allí, a lo largo de los trapos supuestos, él era una figura de gran importancia, su nombre es fuerte cuando la revolución Farroupilha o guerra de andrajos. Conoció a una mujer llamada Ana Maria de Jesus Ribeiro, que más tarde llegó a ser conocida como Anita Garibaldi, llegando a convertirse en su esposa y compañera de luchas en América del sur y en Italia. Juntos tuvieron su primer hijo, Menotti, quien nació en mostazas, en la costa sur del estado de Rio Grande do Sul.


Bento Gonçalves Presidente había liberado Garibaldi de sus deberes y lo presentó con 900 cabezas de ganado. Salió junto con su esposa y su hijo a Montevideo, llegando allí en junio de 1841 con 300 cabezas, después de haber caminado 600 kilómetros.


En Uruguay se casó con Anita en marzo de 1842. Allí nacieron sus otros hijos: Rosa, Teresa y Ricciotti. Lamentablemente Rose murió cuando tenía sólo dos años de edad debido a una infección de garganta que causó asfixia.


Para mantener a su familia trabajó como un profesor de matemáticas en una escuela y también como un corredor. En 1842 recibió el nombramiento de capitán de la flota uruguaya, luchando cuenta Juan Manoel rosas, un temido dictador argentino. Era un gran nombre en la defensa de Montevideo, prevención a ser tomadas por los argentinos. Sus logros llegaron a Italia, donde él seguiría a continuación.


En 1848 Garibaldi regresa a Italia para luchar en Lombárdia contra el ejército austríaco en la lucha por la unificación italiana. No obteniendo éxito en un intento de expulsar a los austriacos, fue obligado a refugiarse en Suiza y luego en Niza, en Francia.


En Roma, Garibaldi se convirtió en diputado en la Asamblea Constituyente de la República romana, sin embargo la ciudad fue sitiada por los ejércitos franceses y napolitanos, con un número de hombres diez veces mayores que los de Garibaldi. Se retiró con 4000 hombres poco después de rechazar un salvoconducto del embajador americano. Fue perseguido por los franceses, españoles y ejércitos napolitanos y escape que Anita fue asesinado.


Exilio, Garibaldi vivió en África, Nueva York y Perú, regresando a Italia en 1854, cuando se le preguntó por el Conde Cavour ayudó a norte de Italia al ser unificado. Luego, sobre su propia cabeza al sur, donde ganó la Sicilia y el Reino de Nápoles.


Garibaldi tomó parte en la guerra franco-prusiana. Francia incluso después de haber perdido le ayudó mucho en las batallas en las que se logró. Rehusando el título de nobleza y una anualidad de rey Victor Emmanuel, se retiró a una casa que poseía en la isla de Caprera, donde permaneció hasta su muerte, el 02 de junio de 1882, dejando sólo una larga biografía llena de batallas.


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