Más conocido en Brasil por el apodo de boca del infierno o la boca de ascua, Gregório de Matos e Guerra fue el nombre más grande de la escuela literaria barroca en el país. Su poesía satírica y erótica genera varios descontentos desde varios frentes (políticos y religiosos) para el autor y jurista.


Juvenil de Gregório de Matos


Existen desacuerdos sobre la fecha del nacimiento de Gregório de Matos. La fecha más de uso frecuente en textos es el de 23 de diciembre de 1636; Sin embargo, existe la posibilidad de su nacimiento ocurrió en marzo de 1623.


Nacido en Salvador (capital del país en el momento), Bahia, e Gregório de Matos Guerra era el hijo de Gregorio de Mattos (nacido en la ciudad de Guimarães, que se encuentra en el norte de Portugal) y del brasileño guerra Maria, que le hizo un Luso-brasileña. Vino de una familia rica, formada por terratenientes, dueños de las plantaciones de caña de azúcar, contratistas y administradores de la Colonia.

Gregório de Matos, conocido como la Boca do Inferno

Gregório de Matos fue perseguido y amenazado debido a sus ácidos de poemas (Foto: reproducción/espacio nos


Gracias a la condición financiera de su familia, los jóvenes Gregório de Matos, que desde muy temprana edad estuvo interesado en sus estudios, fue capaz de unirse al Colegio de los jesuitas, en Salvador y más tarde, en 1650, viajó a Portugal, donde completó sus estudios. En 1652, ingresó en la Universidad de Coimbra, en Portugal, donde se licenció en derecho nueve años más tarde.


Dos años más tarde, en 1663, Gregoriofue nombrado juiz de un de Alcácer do Sal, un cargo nombrado por el rey de Portugal, al tiempo de Don Alfonso VI. Unos años más tarde, 27 de enero de 1668 y en 20 de enero de 1674, Gregorio representa Bahia en las cortes de Lisboa. Entre ese período, en 1672, se le concedió el puesto de Fiscal General.


Volver a Bahia


Gregório de Matos volvió a Brasil en 1679 y fue nombrado por el arzobispo Gaspar Barata de Mendonca como juez eclesiástico de Bahia. En 1682, fue nombrado por el rey Peter II de Portugal, como Tesorero General de la Catedral.

Saber más: grandes poetas brasileños. Averiguar quiénes son Gregório de Matos

Bahia triste – Gregório de Matos


Enemistades y la indigencia de las posiciones


En Portugal, Gregorio yo estaba empezando a ganar popularidad por sus poemas satíricos y ver el estado de Bahía, cuando volvió sólo escribir más ácido. Gracias a sus fuertes críticas sobre sus obras, Gregorio llegó a ser llamado la boca del infierno.


Teniendo en cuenta el carácter de los poemas escritos por Gregory es imaginar que las autoridades de la época no han sido menos poco feliz con el poeta y jurista.


Fue acusado por la Fiscalía de eclesiásticos tienen costumbres gratis para difamar a Jesucristo, no aceptar órdenes de superiores, no querer usar un traje y no respeto excepto la cabeza del casquillo al paso de una procesión. Gracias a esto, Gregório de Matos sería despojado de sus cargos por el arzobispo Fray John de la madre de Dios.


Bohemia y poemas


Aburrido y asqueado, Gregorio se fue a vivir una vida bohemia y su poemas ganó un tono corrosivo y el erotismo, lo que le hizo ganar más enemistades y incluso sufren amenazas por diversos partidos.


Después de un texto que habla mal del gobernador Antonio Luiz Gonçalves da Câmara Coutinho, Gregório de Matos fue juramentado a la muerte por sus hijos. Su gran amigo, el Gobernador General del Brasil, DOM João de Alencastro, preocupado por Gregory, decidió deportarlo a Angola en 1695, donde iba a vivir y practicar en la capital Luanda.


Muerte de Gregório de Matos


En el mismo año de su expulsión, Gregorio se involucró en una conspiración militar, donde se las arregló para ayudar a arrestar a los responsables y como premio, ganó el derecho a regresar a Brasil, sin embargo, para su seguridad, no podía volver a Bahía.


Luego fui a Recife, capital de Pernambuco, donde finalmente murió de una fiebre y reconciliado como cristiano, en 1696.


El trabajo de Gregório de Matos


A pesar de haber escrito muchos poemas durante su vida, su trabajo terminado se acaba de publicar unos 230 años después de su muerte. Debido a esto, muchos de sus poemas pierden eventualmente y textos que llevó su nombre pueden no ser realmente él, porque Gregory tuvo muchos imitadores anónimos durante y después de su vida.


Además de los textos satíricos que sorprendió incluso a la sociedad que le valió el apodo de “Boca del infierno”, escribió religiosas y poesía lírica. En su obra el escritor narró episodios de la vida popular, política y cotidiana. Recuerde con sus textos es posible conocer un poco mejor la sociedad de la época Colonial.


Poesía de Gregório de Matos



  • Colibrí;

  • Bento de Ángel;

  • Señora doña Bahía;

  • Describir lo que realmente era en aquel momento la ciudad de Bahia;

  • Pretender defender el honor de la ciudad y señalar los vicios;

  • Establece tu ciudad;

  • Nuestra Señora madre de Dios, allí va al poeta;

  • El mismo sujeto y en la misma ocasión;

  • El brazo del mismo niño cuando aparecieron Jesús;

  • NSJC con actos de arrepentimiento y de suspiros de amor;

  • El Sanctissimo Sacramento ser comulgar;

  • La San Francisco tomando al poeta el hábito de la tercera;

  • El día era su cumpleaños;

  • Impaciencia del poeta;

  • Buscando al Cristo;

  • Soneto-cargado mi caminar en el mundo;

  • Soneto I – al margen de una fuente, que funcionó;

  • Soneto II-en la confusión del día más horrible;

  • Soneto III-Happy y bendecido;

  • Soneto IV, casó en esta tierra esto y aquello;

  • Soneto V-conseguir su chaqueta de terciopelo;

  • Soneto VI – cada rincón un gran concejal;

  • Bahia triste.

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