Nacido en Río de Janeiro el 21 de junio de 1839, Joaquim Maria Machado de Assis fue escritor, dramaturgo, periodista, poeta y crítico. Hijo de Francisco José de Assis, trabajador y Maria Leopoldina Machado de Assis, muere demasiado pronto, fue creado por la madrastra Maria Ines, que tuvo mucha dedicación y matriculados en una escuela pública, la única persona que pudo asistir. Tenía facilidad en el aprendizaje, pero sólo asistió a la escuela primaria y aprendió latín y francés con una señora que conoció. Con la muerte de su padre, tuvo que ayudar a su madrastra venta de dulces y sigue estudiando. Era epiléptico, gago, mulato, pobre y sufrido muchos de los prejuicios.

Machado de Assis

Foto: reproducción


Llegar a los 16 años, publica el poema “Ella” en el papel de marmota Fluminense. Al tiempo, la librería de Paula Brito fue en busca de nuevos talentos y dio la bienvenida a Machado de Assis como colaborador. A la edad de 17 años, consiguió un trabajo como una impresora de aprendiz en la prensa nacional. Fue durante este período que conoció a quien sería su protector, Manuel Antônio de Almeida, autor de memorias de una sargento de la milicia.


Con 19 años, también se convirtió en un crítico del periódico marmota Fluminense y conoció a grandes escritores como José de Alencar e Gonçalves Dias. También escribió para otros diarios y revistas, como mercado, Daily Mail, el espejo, la semana ilustrada y casa papel.


Ella casó, el 12 de noviembre de 1869, con Carolina Augusta Xavier de Novais. Ella era una mujer educada y demostró el hacha los clásicos portugués e inglés. El matrimonio duró 35 años, no murieron hijos y Caroline en 1904. En su honor, Machado hizo el soneto Carolina.


Ella murió el 29 de septiembre de 1908, con el cáncer.


Sus obras se dividen en dos fases: la primera es el romántico, donde los temas principales son el amor y las relaciones. La segunda fase es realista, en que el autor empieza a explorar, a través de sus personajes, el análisis del ser humano-sus deseos, requisitos, defectos, cualidades, pensamientos, carácter, moral-.


Su primera novela fue la resurrección, en 1872. Fue seleccionado para el cargo de primer oficial de la Secretaría de estado del Ministerio de agricultura, comercio y obras públicas. Hasta su muerte, trabajó en la carrera burocrática. Ayudó a crear la Academia Brasileña de letras en 1897 y fue elegido Presidente allí.


Novelas
Resurrección-1872
Mano y guante-1874
Helena-1876
Iaiá García-1878
Las memorias póstumas de Brás Cubas-1881
Quincas Borba-1891
DOM Casmurro-1899
Jacob y Esaú-1904
Memorial de Aires-1908


Poesía
Pupa
Falenas
Americanos
Occidentales
Poesía completa


Cuentos
La cartera de
La Sra. dólar
El Alienist
Noche de Almirante
El hombre famoso
Historia de la escuela
Algunos brazos
El adivino
La enfermera
Trío en la menor
Medianoche masa


Teatro
Esta noche delantal, guante mañana-1860
Desilusión-1861
Al salir de la puerta, 1863
Casi Ministro-1864
Los dioses de la chaqueta-1866
Tú, sólo tú, puro amor-1880
Lección de botánica – 1906


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