René Descartes

Imagen: reproducción


René Descartes nació en La Haye, ubicada a unos 300 km de París, el hijo de un abogado y juez, Joachim Descartes, quien además de ser propietario de tierras y el título de Escudero fue consejero en el Parlamento de Rennes en Bretaña. Cuando tenía un año de edad, su madre Jeanne Brochard murió en su tercera entrega, dejando el pequeño René para ser criado por su abuela. Como un niño él fue llamado por el padre de “pequeño filósofo”, que llegó a ser molesto con él por la razón de no querer ejercer la carrera de derecho, a pesar de que él terminó el curso en la Universidad de Politers en 1616.


En el año 1618 que Descartes se dirigía a Holanda, donde unen el ejército de Maurice de Nassau, como la escuela militar era para él un complemento de su educación. Fue durante este período que se hizo amigo del duque filósofo Isaac Beeckman, quien era médico y físico. Al año siguiente, 1619, él fue a Dinamarca, Polonia y Alemania, donde según los informes que había soñado de un nuevo sistema matemático y científico en el día 10 de noviembre. Tres años más tarde regresó a Francia.


El legado de René Descartes


Cuando decidió dedicarse a las matemáticas terminó fundando el cartesianismo, una doctrina tenía como principales características del racionalismo, persiguiendo una consideración de método para la obtención de un garantizado de verdad, por lo dualismo metafísico obtuvo un resalte que le dio el título de padre de la filosofía moderna.


En 1625, cuando se trasladó a París, él rompió la filosofía aristotélica que fue adoptada en las academias, porque tenía una imagen del universo era un vórtice de materia que vivió en un constante movimiento, que le llevó a convertirse en un defensor del método lógico y racional, tenía como objetivo la construcción de un pensamiento, uno de los grandes nombres de la ilustración. Como siempre estaba buscando mejorar sus conocimientos, obtener un lugar donde sea posible profundizar más en sus estudios, en el año 1628 decididas trasladarse a Holanda, donde viera para producir el que sería su obra más importante, el famoso tratado Discours de la méthode pour bien conduire et chercher la verité si raison dans les sciences, en el año 1637, donde presentó un programa de investigación filosófica, donde se recomienda que las ciencias físicas debería adoptar el mismo método que usaban los geómetras, que mostró sus teoremas a través de una forma deductiva.


La revolución matemática


Su discurso tuvo la inclusión de tres apéndices, que fue pensado para ilustrar el método utilizado, fueron:



  • Dioptrique (dióptrico);

  • Météores (meteoros);

  • Geométrie (geometría).

Si existía algo capaz de revolucionar las matemáticas y allanar el camino para el progreso había llegado a las ciencias experimentales en los siglos siguientes, especialmente los siglos 17 y 18 fue la geometría, su tercer trabajo que había 106 páginas y causó un verdadero Revolución dándole una nueva matemáticas curso, análisis. Él unificó también la aritmética, álgebra y geometría, crear la geometría analítica, además de, entre otros, crea el sistema de coordenadas cartesianas, que es una relación entre todas estas dimensiones.


En 1649, después de recibir la invitación insistente de Reina Christina de Suecia, decidió ir a Estocolmo para instruir a la reina de 23 años en filosofía y matemáticas. Clases en 5:00 y como ya era muy estricto, el tiempo hizo su salud peor. A principios de febrero contrajo neumonía y diez días después, el 11 de febrero de 1650, murió.


Dejó muchas obras, pero algunos merecen recibir un énfasis debido a su gran importancia en los medios filosóficos y científicos:



  • Reglas para la dirección de la mente (1628)

  • Discurso en método (1637)

  • Geometría (1637)

  • Meditaciones metafísicas (1641)

Hoy en día es el filósofo que más contribuyeron a las Ciencias independientemente e individualmente, sin la necesidad de uno para formular su tesis.


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